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Fill in the gaps in this text with a missing word. Write one word only in each gap.

A barrister is not an attorney and is usually forbidden, either by law or professional rules or both, from "conducting" litigation. This means that while the barrister speaks on the client's behalf in court, the barrister does so when (1 p.) by a solicitor. This difference in function explains many of the practical differences between the two professions. Barristers are also engaged by solicitors to provide specialist (1 p.) on points of law. Barristers are rarely instructed by clients directly (although this occurs frequently in tax matters). Instead, the client's solicitors will instruct a barrister on (1 p.) of the client when appropriate.

The practical difference between the two professions is twofold:

1.  A barrister will usually have rights of (1 p.) in the higher courts, whereas other legal professionals will have more limited access, or will need to take additional qualifications to do so. In this regard, the profession of barrister corresponds to that part of the role of legal professionals found in civil law jurisdictions relating to appearing in trials or (1 p.) cases before the courts.

2.  Barristers used to have a major role in trial preparation, including (1 p.) pleadings and reviewing evidence. In some areas of law, that is still the case. In others, it is relatively common for a barrister to only receive a "brief" from an instructing solicitor to represent a client at trial a day or two before the (1 p.) .

3.  Barristers often have a more specialised knowledge of case-law and precedent. When a solicitor in general practice is confronted with an unusual point of law, they sometimes seek the "opinion of counsel" on the issue.

4.  In court, barristers are often visibly distinguished from solicitors by their (1 p.) . For example, in Ireland, England and Wales, barristers usually wear a horsehair (1 p.) , stiff collar, bands and a gown. As of January 2008 solicitor advocates are also be entitled to wear a wig, but wear a different gown.