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Litigation is not the only way of handling (1 p.) . The alternative is Alternative Dispute Resolution - ADR. Over the last several years ADR has greatly developed and has become an important first step in the dispute resolution process before starting the litigation process, i.e. a lawsuit and court proceedings. ADR refers to any means of resolving the controversies outside of the (1 p.) .

The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload and queues in traditional courts, rising costs of litigation, time delays in the processing of lawsuits, greater confidentiality, and greater control over the selection of the individuals who will decide their dispute.

ADR typically includes, but is not limited to: negotiation, conciliation, mediation, and (1 p.) . Some of these programs are (1 p.) ; others are mandatory.
While the two most common forms of ADR are arbitration and mediation, negotiation is almost always attempted first to (1 p.) a dispute. It is the preeminent mode of dispute resolution.

In negotiation, participation is voluntary and there is no (1 p.) party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution. Negotiation allows the parties to meet face to face in order to settle a dispute. The main advantage this form of dispute settlement is that it allows the parties themselves to control the process and the solution. Negotiation is a give-and- (1 p.) process in which concessions should not be (1 p.) for nothing in return. The most satisfying will be win- (1 p.) solution when both parties feel they have achieved the satisfying settlement. The outcome of negotiation or the reached compromise should be confirmed in writing, since gentlemen (1 p.) do not work in most cultures nowadays.

In mediation, there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties. Mediators are individuals trained in negotiations, who bring opposing parties together and attempt to find a common (1 p.) and work out a settlement or agreement that both parties accept or reject. They are paid by the parties themselves. In some countries (for example, the United Kingdom), ADR is synonymous with what is generally referred to as mediation in other countries.

Arbitration is a simplified version of a trial involving limited discovery and simplified rules of evidence. In arbitration, participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party, an arbitrator or an arbitration (1 p.) , who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. To comprise a panel, either both sides agree on one arbitrator, or each side selects one arbitrator and the two arbitrators elect the third. Arbitration hearings usually last between a few days to a week, and the panel only meets for a few hours per day. The panel then deliberates and issues a written decision, or arbitration (1 p.) . Opinions are not public record. Arbitration has long been used in labour, construction, and securities regulation, but is now gaining popularity in other business disputes. Arbitrations often occur because parties agree in contracts that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration. This arbitration clause is known as a 'Scott Avery Clause', i.e. in the contract parties promise not to take any legal action when handling any disputes that may arise between them. Although parties may appeal arbitration outcomes to courts when they do not honour the award, such appeals face an exacting standard of review. After the appeal the successful party is entitled to the (1 p.) specified in the award.